Arid Cereals Conference
November 13-14, 2015
Minneapolis Convention Center
Click a topic below to see related presentations with links to PDFs and abstracts. Bold indicates presenter name.
Agriculture and natural resources are at the crossroads of the world’s most critical problems. The food system in the United States is critical infrastructure and relies on climate-adapted agricultural production. The increased extreme weather events in the U.S. have forced farmers to actively attempt to grow crops under hotter, drier climate regimes and protect their crops from damage during extreme weather events. Farmers are dealing with seasonal changes in precipitation; increased variation in temperature and precipitation; both among and within years; changes in weather patterns in season; and an increase in temperature and precipitation extremes.
Our approach to dealing with the complexities of a sustainable food and agriculture system recognizes investments need to be made in new and emerging technologies, and promotes open access to data even while accelerating efforts in animal and plant genomics. All of this must be done at a global scale, even as we enhance our domestic efforts. Matching global monitoring of agriculture (e.g. GEOGLAM) and linking to agricultural productivity models that incorporate climate change response (e.g. AgMIP) are important tools for accomplishing our objectives.
USDA continues to make great strides in understanding the effects of climate on agriculture and developing climate-smart agricultural varieties and practices. The Department’s scientific research and technology investments directly support sustainable intensification, or what some call the ‘triple win concept’ of increasing productivity and maintaining resilience, while achieving mitigation.
Key factors determining success in the above dimensions, include; food production assessments linked with food security assessments; information services to support adaptation in changing environments; and empirical evidence on the effectiveness of technological interventions and social adaptations at all levels of the food system. Most critical will be development of sustained networks across institutions to ensure that lessons being learned, as risks and opportunities emerge, become embedded in practice and inform the choice of pathways for resilience.
How it all fits together
Michael Binder, Consultant, The Missional Network pdf
Cereal system conditions, global challenges and opportunities for adaptation:
Several technological, institutional and policy interventions can help South Asia adapt to climate change and to current and future weather variability. Adaptation strategies include modifying planting dates, bridging yield gaps, deploying adverse climate tolerant genotypes and diversified land use systems, using solar irrigation, assisting farmers by providing value-added advisory services and crop/weather insurance, and improving land and water use policies. Most of the proposed adaptation options, if implemented scientifically, also have mitigation co-benefits.
CCAFS is scaling out the Climate-Smart Villages (CSVs) model in South Asia to promote climate-smart agriculture (CSA). Climate Smart Villages are sites where a portfolio of the most appropriate technological and institutional interventions, determined by the local community, are implemented to increase food production, enhance adaptive capacity and reduce emissions.
A critical analysis of recent data indicates that these strategies have reduced the impact of rainfall deficits and temperature increases on an aggregated scale, although significant problems persist at local/sub-national levels. While most of these interventions have shown increased production, resilience and even mitigation, efforts are needed to increase their coverage. This requires understanding the adaptation domains of CSA practices, their linkages with demand and supply of food grains, and appropriate ‘business models’ to scale them out. Efforts are simultaneously needed to address the complex problems of widespread poverty, poor governance, weak institutions, and human capital to realize the full potential of CSA practices.
The main effect of higher temperature on C3 cereals will be the shortening of the crop cycle without impact on either interception efficiency (k) or RUE. On the other hand, higher environmental CO2 concentration could balance the negative impact of temperature (improving WUE under water shortage); however, the trade-off between temperature and CO2 could be over-compensated by temperature in environments of South America. A key for assessing the impact of climate change on cereal cropping systems will be the differential sensitivity of the crop phenophases and the management strategies to mitigate the climate change conditions, e.g., grain setting and grain filling.
Action steps — themed breakout working groups:
Incorporating breeding and genetics as part of enhancing, harmonizing and applying models pdf
Strengthening and contributing to existing U.S. and international partnerships and initiatives pdf
Coordinating data and data availability to support modeling and comparative research pdf
Communicating with and informing farmers and food system stakeholders pdf
Considering pests, weeds and diseases and other constraints and management to improve modeling pdf
Adaptation to drought under climate change: A global perspective
Stefan Siebert, Senior Scientist, University of Bonn
Direct and indirect effects of climate change on cereal productivity in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S.
Jen Adam, Director, BioEarth, Washington State University
Understanding the importance of managing climate risk in the restoration and conservation of natural capital in the dryland cereal systems
Anthony Whitbread, Research Program Director, ICRISAT, India
Nutrient stewardship innovations for increased cereal system resilience
Paul Fixen, Senior VP, International Plant Nutrition Institute and 2016 ASA President
Innovations in Australian mixed cropping systems under climate change
John Kirkegaard, Senior Principal Research Scientist, CSIRO, Australia
Increasing productivity in rain fed, semiarid systems by analyzing and remediating limiting factors
Bram Govaerts, Associate Director, CIMMYT, Mexico
From impact assessment to climate change adaptation: What do we need to know for invertebrate management in grains
Sarina Macfadyen, Ecologist, CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Australia
Managing disease in cereal systems
Karen Garrett, Preeminent Professor, University of Florida
Using weed germplasm as a means to adapt cereal crops to climate change and rising CO2
Lewis Ziska, Research Plant Physiologist, USDA-ARS
The ‘Push-Pull’ farming system: Climate-smart sustainable agriculture for cereal-livestock production in Africa
Zeyaur Khan, Principal Scientist, ICIPE, Kenya
Private sector breeding to prepare for changing climates
Edward Souza, Director, Global Wheat Breeding, Bayer Crop Science
Breeding for tolerance to heat and other climatic stresses for lower latitudes worldwide
Kulvinder Gill, Professor, Washington State University
Public sector breeding to prepare for changing climates
Jim Anderson, Professor Wheat Breeding and Genetics, University of Minnesota
What we know about public and private adaptation strategies
Bruce McCarl, Regents Professor, Texas A&M University
Improving models and data for developing pathways for cropping system adaption to climate change
Jim Jones, Distinguished Professor, University of Florida
Assessing how economic adaptations affect vulnerability to climate change
John Antle, Professor, Oregon State University
Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of dryland cropping systems in the U.S. Great Plains
Mark Liebig, Research Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS
Constraining soil-emitted GHGs from crop production on the Canadian semiarid prairies
Reynald Lemke, Research Scientist, Agriculture and AgriFood Canada
Is eddy covariance a suitable tool to establish greenhouse gas balance of cereals?
Marc Aubinet, Professor, University of Liege, Belgium
Nitrous oxide fluxes from cropping soils in a semiarid region in Australia: A 10-yr prospective
Louise Barton, Senior Research Fellow, University of Western Australia
Optimizing yield and reducing greenhouse gas emissions for resilient cropping systems in rain fed semiarid environments
Peter Grace, Professor, Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Agro-ecological classification of farmer risk perceptions and climate adaptation
J.D. Wulfhorst, Professor, University of Idaho
Linking local and scientific knowledge: Challenges and opportunities
Jere Gilles, Director of Graduate Studies in Rural Sociology, University of Missouri
Perceptions and management of soil quality: A transitional approach
Peter Motavalli, Professor, University of Missouri
A framework for optimizing participatory research
Karen Garrett, Preeminent Professor, University of Florida
Wheat data management and sharing guidelines
Esther Dzale Yeuomo Kabore, Data and Knowledge Manager, French National Institute for Agriculture Research
The WDI aims at building common framework to foster the reuse and interoperability of wheat data. The WDI use the EIF definition: An interoperability framework is an agreed approach to interoperability for organizations that wish to work together towards the joint delivery of public services. Within its scope of applicability, it specifies a set of common elements such as vocabulary, concepts, principles, policies, guidelines, recommendations, standards, specifications and practices.
The deliverables include: recommendations on data exchange formats; data description best practices (consistent use of vocabularies, consistent use of external database cross references, etc.); and data sharing best practices. The WDI portal gathers wheat-related vocabularies and ontologies and makes them accessible through APIs. The expected benefits are: bioinformaticians and data managers who will find relevant information on existing data and metadata standards, avoiding duplicating efforts; and integrated wheat information systems using computation and modeling tool designers who will be able to easily discover access, interpret, aggregate, and analyze data from different sources.
Overview of CGIAR’s open access, open data efforts
Medha Devare, Data and Knowledge Manager, CGIAR, France
Agricultural information supply chains – drivers and directions
Peter Fitch, Interoperable Systems Team Program Leader, CSIRO, Australia
Opportunities for use of information abound, the information age is finally making its presence felt in agriculture. On many farms today crop yield information is automatically and routinely collected and stored on the cloud. It is combined with other information such as soil nutrient and climate forecasts and a range of management products are created, which can be downloaded directly to the enterprise for use. A custom prescription for your farm can be quickly generated and used, resulting in significant on-farm benefits.
This talk reviews the current ways in which agricultural information is transferred, accessed and shared across the agricultural information landscape. We identify that one major issue is that often this data is commercially sensitive and needs to be managed accordingly. We also identify the need for open standards and interfaces to access and use data and identify where work in other domains such as water, can be helpful.
Evolving an architecture for agricultural research data management in the US Pacific Northwest
Paul Gessler, Director, Northwest Knowledge Network, University of Idaho